[b]Taradale Intermediate future School Technology Block (Middle School)[/b]
[b]NET ZERO ENERGY BUILDING[/b]
This is a redesign of Taradale Intermediate technology block which was built in the late 1960’s but now is due for upgrade to better serve the people of New Zealand in terms of training in various technologies such as food, sewing, mixed materials, digital and biotechnology. This design utilizes the same building footprint but provides flexible learning spaces suitable for the current and future needs of the technology curriculum. It offers a conducive learning space filled with latest technologies to enable teachers to deliver the curriculum. The design maximizes the use of space and reduces noise interruptions between learning spaces. An outdoor learning area is added to the design to enhance the learning experience of students whilst reducing the indoor space energy demands. A geo thermal floor heating system and an improved ventilation system are added to the design. Rain harvesting system is also incorporated into the design with an improved roofing system. The school farm, rooftop and wall gardens presented in the design aims at solving the school’s food needs. The rooftop solar panels are also designed to generate energy to meet the schools energy needs. In effect, the school design is made with cost-effective, energy efficient and sustainable materials to give the school value for money.
[b]2.0 Design Process:[/b]
[b]Phase 01: Existing building Analysis[/b]
§ The existing building BIM Model was developed using Revit 2016 with the information provided.
§ Energy simulation analysis was done for the model created, to calculate the annual energy demand, fuel demand and net CO2 Emission.
§ Sun path study was performed.
§ Wind analysis was conducted at the nearby Weather Station of GBS using Wind rose.
§ PV analysis was performed to calculate the Solar energy from the site.
§ No of pupils : 130
§ Exterior window ratio: 0.25
§ Average lighting power: 15.07 W / sq.m
§ Electricity EUI: 127 kWh/sm/yr
§ Fuel EUI : 179 MJ / sm /yr
[b]Findings from the Phase 01 _ Existing building analysis:[/b]
§ The building is not oriented exactly towards true North.
§ The building has low energy performance windows (single glass windows).
§ Walls are made up of Fiber cement panels which have less U value and low insulation properties.
§ Normal concrete flooring with floor finish.
§ Building system was prefabricated roofs, walls supported by portal frames recently added from outside of the existing walls.
§ Roof Area approximately 660 Sq.m. and flat roof.
§ Heating and cooling done by Mechanical equipment.
§ No rain water harvesting options.
§ Interior walls are prefabricated fiber cement walls, which have very less Acoustic insulation properties.
[b]Design opportunities to make net zero passive building – Phase 02:[/b]
[b]Wall – ‘New Remote Wall ‘[/b]
§ New High insulation remote wall of 300mm thick in wooden stud is proposed immediately next to the existing steel column of the portal frame.
§ A cavity with 300 mm width will be created by the addition of the new Remote wall 300 mm away from the existing wall’s outer face, hence the portal frame columns will be enclosed in the cavity.
[b]Interior Partition wall:[/b]
[b]New internal partitions walls[/b]
§ A new design of a standard 90 x 45 mm timber partition with two layers of 10 mm plasterboard on one side and a sound absorbing insulation with one or two layer(s) of plasterboard on the other side to provide good noise reduction is proposed for the hard material and sewing technology space.
[b]Noise control in existing partitions[/b]
§ An additional layer of 10 mm plasterboard on both sides of a standard timber partition for better noise reduction will be added to the other areas of the internal partition wall.
[b]High performance Window:[/b]
§ The windows will be Low-emissivity (low-E) glasses; one pane triple glazing.
§ Low-E glass allows light and heat in, whist reflecting escaping heat back into the room.
§ New low-E high performance triple glass single frame large windows will be placed on the North side of the building. The wall panels and windows next to the new North side high performance wall will be removed.
§ The overhang of the north side window will be minimum to improve the performance of the windows. This will avoid shading on the north side walls.
§ All the North side new ‘Remote Walls’ will be designed higher than the south side wall. To minimize the heating and cooling loads inside the spaces.
[b]Super insulation Roof:[/b]
§ To increase the roof area, the roof form will be derived from the number of alternate designs as shown in the drawings and renders. This kind of sloped Elliptical shape form enhances the building’s energy performance by reducing the space heating and cooling load when compared to the old building.
§ All the roofs will be sloped towards the North - South directions in accordance with the wall height. Rain water gutters are provided parallel to East West direction.
§ New elliptical / curved prefabricated nailed wooden frames will be designed to support the new roof structures which will cater for the roof’s own weight, roof top garden and solar panels.
§ New Remote wall foundations will be placed in the existing concrete floor next to the portal frame column. All the wall foundations will be placed inside the existing concrete floor with proper insulation and will be made Water proof. (This will be designed based on the existing site condition).
§ The new prefabricated wooden frame foundation will also be placed in the existing concrete and some other places outside the existing concrete. Care should be taken for insulation and water proofing. The wooden frames will be connected to the steel clamps at the bottom, the steel clamps will be embed into the concrete foundation, anchored with bolts. (This will be designed based on the existing site condition).
· New radiant heat flooring shall be added onto the existing flooring with wooden finish as shown in the section drawing. The radiant heat flooring system will be operated with geo thermal energy from the ground.
· From the Wind Rose, it was identified that the maximum and breeze winds are blowing from the West side to East side. New automatic Mechanical ventilators are proposed to intake the fresh air from the West side and exit the air to East side. The intake fresh air will travel through the cavity and openings created in the existing cement fiber panel wall on both the East and West sides to facilitate good natural ventilation.
[b]Agriculture / farming:[/b]
· The rear area of the building will be used for organic farming and agricultural fields which will be managed by the students.
· Also wall gardens will be planted for production of food on the sides of the new wooden frames from floor to roof level leaving openings in the window areas and excluding the North side frames.
· A Roof top garden will be planted for food production along with PV panels.
· Food from the farm and gardens will be used by the food technology students for their practical work and for preparing the meals that will be served to the students of the school. The excess food will be sold at a local farmers market, and donated to a community food bank. The food waste will be sent back to the farm to be converted into compost.
[b]Solar power and Rain water harvesting:[/b]
· Solar PV panels are designed to harvest maximum energy form the sun throughout the year. The designed tilt angles are 29 degree (50%) and 54 degree (50%). Based on the first year performance, the actual number of panels for 29 and 54 degree tilt will be decided.
· Rain water harvesting underground tanks will be placed below the mechanical equipment room to harvest maximum rain water from the roof top.
[b]Outdoor learning areas[/b]
· A new Outdoor learning space is designed to reduce the indoor space energy demands. Also its area can fulfill the same function as an indoor learning spaces. This new outdoor learning space will give students a new learning experience and encourage them to explore knowledge through nature. The traditional learning board will be replaced with hologram screens.
· All the corridors will be powered by Hologram screen and learning materials on the sides of the wooden frame.
[b]Sustainability Working Advisory Teams (SWATeams), each consisting of two faculty, two staff and two students will be set up for measuring progress in sustainability goals.[/b]
· [b]Advanced technology in learning process:[/b]
· Holographic tele presence
· Remote classroom
· Multi learning space
· Robots will assist the guides in educating and training the students. Robots are efficient in carrying out tasks and are also capable of doing what humans cannot do due to limitations such as tiredness and the rest. Human guides will however be present to check the limitations of the robots such as the inability to use of discretion.
[b]Biometrics: Eye Tracking[/b]
· One technology that has been gaining recognition is biometrics. Conventionally biometrics are associated with the security industry, as it uses what is unique to each one of us to authenticate our identity: fingerprints, facial recognition, iris patterns, voice.
[b]Net Zero Energy building achieved through:[/b]
§ Floor heating and cooling will be done by new radiant floor using geo thermal energy. This eliminates the Fuel energy and electrical energy for cooling / heating. (Fuel EUI : 179 MJ / sm /yr ).
§ Lighting will be powered by Solar PV arrays, designed to harvest energy without any losses ( 29 deg and 54 deg tilt facing towards true north).
§ Low e triple glass single pane windows are used to reduce the electrical energy for lighting as well as heating / cooling loads.
§ Rain water harvesting for Agriculture / farming purpose.
§ New outdoor learning space designed to reduce indoor space heating / cooling demand.